city was established as a port on the
mouth of the river Cayster and was one
of the foremost cities of the world for
its being on a strategic trade route in
The city itself and the ruins are all
on the sides of a fertile valley. The
extensive ruins including the theatre,
library or gymnasium create the special
atmosphere of Ephesus, and appeal to every
Ephesus has been a "center"
during the date. Once a trade center of
the ancient world , a religious center of
the early Christianity and today, a unique
tourism center proving all its perfects
to the visitors through the world.
linguists accept that the word "Ephesus"
derived from "Apasas". The town
of Apasas under the rule of Ahhiyava Kingdom
mentioned in the written records of Hittites
of the 14th and 13th centuries BC is Ephesus.
There are mythologies
about the settlement:
to the famous historian Herodotes, the city
was founded by Androklos, son of Kodros,
the King of Athens. According to legend
in the year of 10 BC, Androklos was searching
a location for establishing a site. Androklos
was running from the Dor invasion in Greece.
He was leading one of the migration convoys.
It was predicted by an Apollon oracle that
a fish and a boar would show the location
of the new settlement. Days later, parallel
to the oracle's prediction, while frying,
a fish fell down from the pan, irritating
a hiding a boar behind the bushes. The feared
boar escaped immediately. Androklos followed
the boar and established the city of Ephesus,
where he had killed the boar. When Androklos
died in the wars with Carians, a mausoleum
was built to memory of the first king of
Ephesus. The mausoleum is considered to
be placed around "The Door of Magnesia".
the mythical female warriors founded Ephesus.
In mythology, The Amazons were a race of
woman warriors who lived in Anatolia and
fought with the Trajans against the Achaeans
in the Trajan wars. At that time, their
queen was killed by the Achaean hero Achilles.
According to legend the Amazons dealt with
men for only two reasons, procreation and
battle, and they reared only their female
young. The Amazons were frequently depicted
by artists as being in battle with men.
Ephesus has been located at different places
in different times:
1 was located on Ayasuluk ( Selcuk )
Hill and inhabited by ancient Anatolians,
Carians and Lelegians. At that time there
was a cult of the Great Earth Mother which
acted like a magnet attracting pilgrims
and settlers even before the Ionian migration.
Ephesus 2 was on the north slope
of Panayir Dagi ( Mount Pion ). As with
other cities of the Aegean coast of Anatolia,
Ephesus came to be ruled by Croesus of Lydia
in the mid 6th century BC, before passing
to the Persians after 546 BC. It joined
the Delian League after the Persian wars.
In 334 BC. it fell to Alexander the Great
and subsequently to his successors: Lysimachus
and Seleucid rulers.
In the 4th century BC the harbour threatened
to silt up the settlement and it was moved
to a new location between Mount Pion and
Bulbul Dagi ( The Nightingale Mountain or
Mount Coressus ) by Lysimachus to form Ephesus
3. The remains of city walls from this
period can still be seen at the foothill
of Mount Coressos.
Later it was controlled by Pergamun, eventually
passing in to Roman hands in 133 BC. During
this period Ephesus became the capital of
province of Asia Minor and the population
reached a quarter of a million. After the
6th century AD due to the persistent silting
up of the harbour and repeated raids by
Arabs, the city changed it's location back
to Ayasuluk Hill forming Ephesus 4.
Originally Ephesus was a harbour city but
due to the Menderes alluviums over the centuries,
the site is now remoted from sea for about
Ephesus has played significant roles
during the date, in the early Christianity,
as well. The prestige of Ephesus increased
with the arrival of Saint Paul, for spreading
the Christianty to the Ephesians worshipping
to Artemission. St. Paul and the disciplines
of Christianity were strictly refused by
Ephesians, elderly. With the long tiring
struggles of St. Paul, Christianity was
accepted by the most of the population around
Ephesus. St. Paul had also sent one of his
most famous letters to the church in Ephesus.
Additionally, St. Jean and Virgin Mary visited
Ephesus and Virgin Mary settled down the
Mount Coressos, located close to Ephesus,
around the years of 431 AD.
Ephesus became a state of Seljukian
in the year of 1090, for a time was held
by Byzantine. In 1307 Seljukians controlled
the city again. However, years later, the
River Caystros was silted up, leaving the
site far inland. Therefore, the city of
Ephesus has lost it's significance, due
to the development of the ports of Izmir
and Kusadasi in sea-trade.
Excavation works in Ephesus started
about 129 years ago and there is no doubt
that these will go on for many years together
with restoration works.
OTTI's Ephesus Tours will give you opportunity to explore Ephesus and around